By Bruce R. Doe
Published by way of the yank Geophysical Union as a part of the sphere journey Guidebooks sequence, quantity 235.
This afternoon journey in downtown Washington, D.C., will enable examine of toxins, structural, and other forms of wear and tear to buildings with emphasis on these built of good- to coarse-grained marble yet with representatives of limestone and pink sandstone. The journey will comprise so as of exam [date of labor initiated (i) and/or occupied (o.) and stone type]: the Renwick Museum (1859o., crimson sandstone trim changed 1987), Corcoran Museum (1879c. enlarged 1927, coarse-grained marble), pink pass structures (1915i.–1917o., 1927i., fine-grained marble), Memorial Continental corridor of the Daughters of the yank Revolution, DAR (1904i.–1909o., fine-grained marble), Pan American Union development (1908i.–1910o., coarse-grained marble), structure corridor (DAR) (1929o., limestone), Washington Monument (1885o., marble), Jefferson Memorial (1943o., external of fine-grained marble), and Lincoln Memorial (1922o., very fine-grained marble). Coarse-grained marble is in general extra proof against pollutants harm than fine-grained marble. Direct publicity to the weather speeds up degradation. the main critical toxins harm happens to balustrades and columns: runoff from bronze onto fine-grained marble may also reason critical degradation. Any kind of overhang has a tendency to guard the underlying stone, yet exceptions might be visible on the Jefferson Memorial. usually, vertical partitions have much less toxins harm than horizontal surfaces that may start to express roughening inside of years of set up. Limestone in universal use is strangely proof against degradation owing, at the least partly, to the porous nature of the stone that inhibits runoff. If one of many journeys is made to the Powell construction of the U.S. Geological Survey in Reston, Virginia (1974o., concrete), will probably be obvious that concrete behaves very similar to limestone and marble.
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